A licensed naturopathic physician (ND) attends a four-year, graduate-level naturopathic medical school and is educated in all of the same basic sciences as an MD, but also studies holistic and nontoxic approaches to therapy with a strong emphasis on disease prevention and optimizing wellness. Naturopathic Doctors are trained as primary care doctors, which requires a prerequisite Bachelor's degree upon entry. The first two years cover basic sciences, including Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Obstetrics, Neurology, Clinical and Physical Diagnosis and Laboratory Diagnosis. The final two years cover internships, practicums, and clinical sciences incorporating several approaches to natural medicine, such as Botanical Medicine, Clinical Nutrition, and Homeopathy, Physical Medicine, Natural Childbirth, and Lifestyle Counseling. A naturopathic physician takes rigorous professional board exams so that he or she may be licensed by a state or jurisdiction as a primary care general practice physician.